Steel Ladles

Monolithic Solutions


From the mini mills with an EAF to the integrated steel shops, ladles are the key to success. They are no longer a mere inert receptacle but rather an integrated part of the metallurgical process. The different types of refractories used are essential to the steel treatment as seen in the desulphurization of steel. Refractories also play a critical role as they may contribute to the pollution of steel (carbon, phosphorus pick-up from carbon, and refractories containing phosphate). Chemical stability, regarding the corrosion by synthetic slag, has to be retained and the mechanical stability of the refractory construction also must be assured to resist the severe aggression of a VOD or lance treatment. In some cases, the average temperature is higher than 1700°C and basicity, according to the steel grade produced, varies from 2 to 4.5. Consequently, it is very difficult to obtain the perfect material for every condition.

Engineered Monolithic Refractories

First and foremost, these choices need to follow several rules regarding respect to safety and adaptation to the process. In the event of a breakthrough, maximum safety is paramount for the operators. The permanent lining has to be very secure so that at a minimum it can resist the contact of slag and steel during one treatment, but also be able to withstand the mechanical action of a pneumatic hammer during removal of the existing lining. In some cases, it is necessary to introduce a second material quality in the slag line.

For the barrel, various solutions are proposed including vibrated castables, cast in-situ without vibration, and self-flowing materials from our CALDE™ range. Casting can be done behind a mould or, using a new popular method, behind the bricks. For a customer requiring monolithic refractories without the investment of a formerly installed refractory lining, a full shotcrete range has been developed: the CALDE™ SPRAYCAST.

The bottom is a more complicated area which requires careful attention. Both in-situ cast and ready-shape solutions have been developed using both spinel-forming and/or spinel containing materials. The diversity in processes, designs, and steel qualities require specific solutions to be developed in collaboration with the end-user.

Monolithic ladle linings were introduced in Japan several years ago and have proven to be a very competitive solution demonstrating the following benefits:

  • Safety proofed solution for both the permanent and working linings.
  • High service life. When more than 15 campaigns have been achieved, performance in excess of 1500 heats is common.
  • High availability of the ladle fleet
  • Excellent steel cleanliness (ultra low carbon steel)
  • High cost efficiency (with intermediate relining facilities)

Calderys is always providing high quality engineered monolithic solutions for the ladle, capitalizing on its worldwide experience and network of experts.

If you would like to know more and receive info on adapted monolithic solutions for your ladles, Contact us!

About Calderys

Our mission is to help you meet your ever increasing production and productivity targets, whilst protecting the safety of your people and the integrity of your equipment. Our focus is to deliver safe, reliable and high performing refractory solutions customized to your needs. Our international production and sales facilities allow us to develop and deliver customized solutions based on monolithic and ready shape monolithic refractory materials worldwide in a fast, efficient, and safe manner.


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